The aim of the studies performed by the Institute in the area of veterinary medicine is the preservation of the wholeness of eco-systems, prevention of epidemic or epizootic diseases, and decreasing of the risk caused by zoonosis for animals and for the society in whole. The Institute cooperates with the institutions of veterinary medicine at national and international level, including, the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) to implement epidemiological and biological studies of infectious diseases and their agents. Zoonosis studies are aimed at the establishment of efficient supervision system, diagnostics of infectious diseases and defining their influence on industry and public health.
Epidemiological studies of infectious diseases of agricultural and wild animals
In this direction, it is planned to develop epidemiological models and updated information about the dissemination of animal infection diseases, for example, African swine fever, classical swine fever, bluetongue disease, salmonellosis, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy and other diseases.
Studies on the influence of wild animals and vectors of insect fauna in the circulation of zoonosis agents
Within the framework of this direction, it is planned to study the role of the species of local wild animals and insects in the dissemination of zoonotic agents, for example, brucellosis, parazitoses, rabies, influenza and other agents, as well as in the context of climate change which might serve as the basis for the development of control program for the state or region with the aim to decrease the risk caused by zoonosis for animals and general public.
Studies on phylogenetic changeability and tractability of microorganisms
In this direction, it is planned to develop the studies on phylogenetic variety of viral and bacterial agents, including zoonosis, in the Baltic Region by using newest technologies (MALDI TOF, NGS, pyrosequencing, etc.). Studies are important for the development disease control strategies. Development and maintenance of the bank of isolates of various animal diseases, viruses and bacteria is very important for epidemiologic and retrospective studies as well as for the determination of the sources of infection. Information and experience gained in the course of studies can be used for preventive measures, for the organisation of activities during epidemic and for making studies on antimicrobial resistance.
Development of the program for scientific based development of restriction of antimicrobial resistance
Scientific based restriction of the development of antimicrobial resistance includes the determination of dissemination of resistant microorganisms, their molecular typology, and restrictive activities, and other measures. The matters related to antimicrobial resistance are very important because antibiotics are widely used in medicine and in veterinary medicine in the treatment of infection diseases. The aim of these studies is to determine the dissemination of resistant and multi-resistant infection agents (E. coli, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Staphylococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus spp., Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Trueperella pyogenes) in animals and food chain in Latvia and the Baltic Region as well as to obtain new knowledge about the mechanisms of development of antimicrobial resistance by the use of phenotypic and genetic characteristics. The results of these studies will create the basis for the development of practical guidelines for restriction of antimicrobial resistance in the areas of agricultural and veterinary medicine sciences with the aim to improve animal health, and respectively – the health of general public.